WATER AND CLIMATE CHANGE

For several years climate change has been increasing the pressure on water bodies.

What effects of climate change are emerging in recent years?

From floods and droughts to the acidification of the oceans and the rise in sea levels. Well, according to various studies it is expected that the effects of climate change on water intensify over the coming years.
These changes are giving rise to actions around the world. Cities are already adapting with more sustainable nature-based solutions to lessen the effects of floods and using water in a more intelligent and sustainable way, so that it is possible to coexist with droughts. Since there is more water than land on the surface of the planet, the warming of the oceans represents about 93% of global warming since 1950.

How does this heating occur in the water? It is produced as a consequence of the increase of greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide, trapping more and more solar energy within the atmosphere.
Most of this heat trapped ends up being stored in the oceans, which affects the temperature and circulation of water. Increasingly higher temperatures are also melting polar ice sheets. As the total area of ​​the ice and the snow cover are reduced, the amount of solar energy that is reflected into the space is reduced, which makes the planet even hotter. This, in turn, means that more fresh water is incorporated into the oceans, which further alters the currents. One of the sectors with greater prominence when it comes to significantly mitigating the effects of climate change is the water sector.

Droughts: It is one of the harshest consequences of climate change being increasingly severe and frequent. In addition, the historical series confirms that they increasingly affect the driest geographical areas, thus increasing their extension in time and quantity. The rise in sea level due to melting: a consequence that is still in time to return before reaching the point of inflection.
The rise in sea level, together with the overexploitation of aquifers in coastal areas, is aggravating the intrusion of saline water into them, resulting in the salinization of freshwater reserves.

Deforestation: direct impact on climate change policy by reducing the CO2 absorption capacity, favoring the advance of desertification and the increase of CO2 due to the natural degradation of organic waste. The degradation of organic matter in untreated wastewater: The equivalent CO2 emissions are caused by the absence of wastewater treatment, as well as NO2, and methane (CH4), which are the gases actually emitted.

What technological and environmental solutions are possible?

Desalination: The only source of non-conventional drinking water generation in areas where there is no other alternative. There has also been much discussion as an option to transport water, because for distances greater than 100 km from the point of origin, desalination is more efficient and competitive in terms of square meters of water produced / transported. The old thermal desalination plants that are currently maintained, mostly located in the Middle East, have come to be questioned because of their high degree of emissions and large oil consumption. The basis of its operation, in most cases, is based on the production of thermal energy, obtaining water as a by-product and with an exorbitant energy consumption. But we observe with optimism a clear tendency in the substitution of the same for more efficient plants, contributing to supply potable water in arid zones and reducing emissions.

2Large-scale reuse: The treatment of wastewater with qualities suitable for agricultural use would not only reduce the emissions emitted by the degradation of organic matter from wastewater “per se”, but would open the door to improve crop yields. The rainfed crops would be irrigated with higher production efficiency and a smaller agricultural crop area needed for the same production.

The first cause of deforestation is the expansion of agricultural areas, so it is important to favor the afforestation of new areas using irrigation from unconventional water sources. This new way of reusing water will serve to optimize the maintenance of forests, parks and gardens, but we need to reach higher reuse levels than the current ones. In addition, in those arid areas that do not have other sources of water for irrigation, desalination after a first potable use, would have a great positive impact for agriculture. Climate change is a difficult and complicated problem but it can be reduced with new solutions based on technological progress, and aligned with the economic advances and political interests of the 21st century. These solutions can produce neutral desalinated water in emissions, allowing to close non-sustainable plants and plants. However, in the field of reuse we must continue working so that unconventional water sources from wastewater and oriented to agricultural uses are a reality on a larger scale.

Did you know that each of us can contribute our grain of sand to stop this?

Use public transport.
Buy efficient appliances to save energy.
Install energy saving light bulbs.
Reduce the consumption of packaged products.
Close the tap and make a responsible consumption of water.

What are you waiting for to contribute your grain of sand?

CULTIVATION BASIL

Do you know what type of crop is shown in the image?

It is basil, a plant native to India where miraculous properties were attributed to it, its scientific name is Ocinum Basilicum.

Currently it is grown in all countries of the planet. It is an annual herbaceous plant, can reach up to 60 cm in height. The basil is leafy, with green leaves and soft to the touch. It is a highly aromatic plant that forms white flowers of small size.

Why grow basil?

It presents many qualities that make it very attractive to be cultivated.
Between them:

Deal with depression.

Diuretic plant.

It is digestive. People with insomnia problems, headaches or migraines.

It serves as a stimulant for phases of exhaustion.

Soothes skin irritations.

Fight acne.

Sedative, healing and analgesic.

The active components are the aromatic essential oil and its tonic-gastric, antiseptic and expectorant properties.

Relieves sinusitis by using it vaporized in water. Relieve congestion of the breast with basil leaves with honey and lemon.

It is very digestive, helps correct gastrointestinal disorders It has a great use in the kitchen as it is an aromatic plant, combining it with salads, soups … Also a very important aspect is that it scares insects and prevents the appearance of pests in your garden.

Conditions of their cultivation:

Temperature: this type of crop, such as basil, is grown in warm weather so it does not withstand extreme cold or frost. its ideal temperature is between 15 and 25 degrees.

Soil: requires fertile soils, humid and sheltered from the winds.

Irrigation: as we have described previously, it needs wet soils but not waterlogged, because its roots do not support excess moisture. It requires a regular irrigation but in abundance it is harmful. Depending on the terrain and climate in which the basil is grown, it is advisable to water it 1 to 3 times a week. The most advisable is to use a drip irrigation and thus maintain a degree of humidity in the soil.

Featured Products:

CINDRIP
IRRIGATION TAPE ACCESSORIES

 

Below we attach the image of the basil crop that they send us from Gestiriego Islands.

To give life to this crop use the product irrigation tape CINDRIP 1.1 L / H to 0.20 cm.

 

 

 

 

Agriculture has suffered three revolutions in the last 100 years that have led it to be the activity as we know it right now. However, in these very moments, we are witnessing a new revolution.

A revolution that is bringing two worlds as far apart as work on earth with information technology and massive data management, or Big Data.
The Data Revolution has reached agriculture. Agriculture 4.0 The dimension 4.0 of which we speak is a dimension in which everything is connected. Everything emits data that can be captured and analyzed in a massive way. And after that analysis, the user receives the best options so as not to err in his decision.
And this was 4.0 is applicable, and is being applied, in agriculture today. Many actors have seen a great opportunity to make agriculture more productive, more sustainable and less consumerist of resources.
And all this, just by analyzing the data we can obtain from an olive or animal, to the sales of the product in international markets. And all this is possible to a technology: Big Data. Even the EU has seen the potential of Big Data, and numerous reports highlight three trends, above all others, that will affect agriculture the most by 2030: precision agriculture, automation and integration / cooperation.
Needless to say, the first two are fed data to be a reality.

Big Data agricultural what does it contribute?

Analyzing numerous projects and real experiences in which Big Data has been applied to agriculture and livestock, I have extracted the most important points that can make this technology a real revolution.
Not only of the agricultural or livestock farm, but throughout the entire food chain:

  • Higher production: real experiences with Big Data has led to increased yields of cereal crops up to 0.44 t / ha.
  • Reduction of inputs: another experience in German farms have shown that it is possible to reduce the consumption of different inputs (fertilizers, herbicides, fuel) between 10-20%.
  • Analyze global, act locally: Big Data allows you to collect data from all your farm, analyze them and return the analysis by parcels. This allows the farmer to adjust the phytosanitary treatment or fertilizer to a certain area of ​​his farm. With the consequent saving and protection to the environment.

Finding solutions to reuse the water used in agriculture and livestock is key to preserve it. The first reaction when talking about water scarcity is to think about the lack of water to drink. An amount per person that revolves around two liters per day.

But we do not think so much about the water we eat. And that, on average, it takes between 2,000 and 5,000 liters of water to produce food that a person ingests daily, according to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Only 0.003% of the planet’s water is sweet, and 70% of it is used in agricultural activities. Producing a kilo of cereal consumes between one and three tons of water. One kilo of meat, up to 15 … It is estimated that by 2050 the production of food will have to be increased enormously to feed a world population that will reach 9,000 million people. If, as predicted by FAO, the food produced from irrigation has to grow 50% by then, and the agricultural sector only has a margin of 10% to increase its water consumption, the magnitude of the problem is clear.

Another issue in vogue is the management of wastewater for reuse in agricultural production. More and more countries, such as Egypt, Jordan, Mexico, Spain or the United States are exploring ways to give this resource a second life. The key resists finding a way to do it safely, eliminating pathogens, chemical elements, antibiotics and other waste that may be harmful to farmers or those who will eventually consume the food produced with these waters.

Research on treatment – be it natural, wetlands, forestry projects, or technology, with decontamination plants – is the way to explore a new way to take advantage of and save water. In Jordan, for example, recovered water is already 25% of total consumption in the country.

At Gestiriego we work on promoting ways to use less water and do it more efficiently. We also remember the need to reduce food waste and waste, because all the water used to generate those foods goes to waste with them.

Water is an essential resource for life, which sometimes becomes critical for the sustainability of populations, municipalities, regions, countries and companies. Nowadays it is necessary to know the indicators and the tools that allow to evaluate the sustainability of water management, in companies, regions, nations and the world. The Environmental Footprint of the European Union. The Environmental Footprint of the European Union was born with the publication in the DOCE, on 05/05/2013, of the RECOMMENDATION OF THE COMMISSION, of April 9, 2013, on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the environmental behavior of the products and organizations throughout their life cycle.
The environmental footprint of products (HAP) and organizations (HAO) is a multicriteria measure of the environmental behavior of a good or service, or of an organization that provides goods or services, throughout its life cycle.
In both cases, the objective is to reduce the environmental impact throughout the entire supply chain. It is applicable to companies, public administration entities, non-profit organizations and other organizations.

In the Environmental Footprint, 14 categories of environmental impact are studied: climate change; depletion of the ozone layer; ecotoxicity for freshwater ecosystems; human toxicity (carcinogenic effects); human toxicity (non-carcinogenic effects); particles / inorganic substances with respiratory effects; ionizing radiation, effects on human health; photochemical formation of ozone; acidification; terrestrial eutrophication; aquatic eutrophication; depletion of resources, water, Ecoscarcity model; depletion of mineral and fossil resources; transformation of the earth.

Between 2014 and 2016, the Category Rules for the Product and Organization Environmental Footprint have been prepared for 25 industrial sectors, which:
– They will become the norms of valid products within the framework of the Environmental Footprint of Product and Organization in the EU.
– They must be used by all industries and the components of the respective sectors, in the European Union and internationally, to measure the behavior of their products, based on the Environmental Footprint of the product. The objective is that between 2016 and 2020 the voluntary use of the Environmental Footprint of Product and Organization be generalized in the European Union. Decision making should be based on the data provided by indicators that measure several environmental aspects, otherwise we would risk increasing other categories of environmental impacts without realizing it, which is why the EU Environmental Footprint is the most complete indicator , since it includes the Carbon Footprint and some ways to express the Water Footprint.

The soil, the most superficial layer of the earth’s crust, constitutes one of the most important natural resources with which we have to be the substrate that sustains life on the planet. The soil provides the nutrients, water and physical support necessary for plant growth and the production of biomass in general, playing a fundamental role as a source of food for living beings.

It is an essential component of the hydrological cycle, acting as a distributing element of surface water and contributing to the storage and recharge of groundwater. The soil, through its buffering or natural deactivation of pollution, filters, stores, degrades, neutralizes and immobilizes toxic organic and inorganic substances, preventing them from reaching groundwater and air or entering the food chain.

According to the FAO, soil degradation can be defined as any process that reduces the current and potential capacity of the soil to produce, quantitatively and qualitatively, goods and services. These degradation processes can be classified according to their nature and the type of negative consequences they cause on soil properties: biological, such as the decrease in the content of organic matter incorporated in the soil; physical, as the deterioration of soil structure by compaction and increase in bulk density, decrease in permeability and water retention capacity or loss of soil by erosion; and chemicals, such as the loss of nutrients, acidification, salinization, sodification and increased toxicity.

In recent years, many investigations have been aimed at trying to recover contaminated soils instead of destroying them. The destruction of the soils is generally carried out by transferring them to landfills properly isolated and controlled because it is intuited that other recovery treatments do not offer sufficient guarantees to contain the contamination. At present, there is a wide range of technologies for the recovery of contaminated soils, some of which are customary and others still in an experimental phase, designed to isolate or destroy polluting substances by altering their chemical structure through generally chemical, thermal or biological processes.

According to the way in which soil recovery techniques are applied, there is talk of in situ treatments, which act on the contaminants in the place where they are located, and ex situ treatments, which require the previous excavation of the soil for later treatment. In situ treatments require less management but are generally slower and more difficult to carry out given the difficulty of putting decontamination agents in close contact with the entire mass of contaminated soil.

Ex situ treatments are usually more expensive but also faster, usually achieving a more complete recovery of the affected area.

Depending on the objectives you want to achieve when recovering contaminated soil, you can distinguish between: • Containment techniques; that isolate the contaminant in the soil without acting on it, usually by applying physical barriers in the soil.
• Confinement techniques; that reduce the mobility of contaminants in the soil to prevent their migration by acting directly on the physicochemical conditions under which the contaminants are found.

  • Decontamination techniques; aimed at reducing the concentration of contaminants in the soil.

Nowadays, in light of modern studies, the negative repercussions on the quality of wines due to brief periods of water stress have been evidenced, which is why the irrigation strategy tends to be established according to the quality of the product. final that you want to achieve. Drip irrigation in this crop has been shown to give the best results.

The selection of the type of dropper, the precipitation, the separation between drippers and the filtration needs, must be carefully evaluated during the design of the installation. The separation of the drippers according to the type of soil is a very important factor. In sandy soils 50 cm distance between drippers is recommended, while in clay soils the distances can be up to 1 meter.
Advantages of drip irrigation in the vineyard:

– High application efficiency. No water is lost through run-off or evaporation.

– Minimum number of irrigation sectors. Compared with other irrigation systems such as sprinklers or blanket irrigation, with the same flow rate we can irrigate a larger surface at the same time.

– Minimum infiltration problems. When dripping, there is no runoff that is lost by rapid infiltration.

– Lost by minimal evaporation.

– The wind does not affect the distribution. The wind affects considerably in sprinkler systems.

– Reduction of diseases due to a reduction in the aerial part of the plant and in the environment. Flooding and sprinkling are systems that produce favorable conditions for the development of diseases caused by fungi.

– No interference with the rest of the works in the vineyard. The installation of irrigation does not usually bother for the rest of the tasks we carry out in the vineyard, such as the grape harvester. The machinery can be used during the irrigation.

– Facility for the application of fertilizers. The facility is used to distribute the nutrients and apply them in the appropriate doses and moments, already dissolved in water, so they are more effective and localized, so we also save on fertilizers.

– Low maintenance. Installation costs more economical than other systems.

– The topography of the plot is not conditioning and there is the possibility of using self-compensating drippers in irregular geographies.

– Reduction of weeds, because the surface of wet soil is smaller.

– Lower pumping costs, because the drip irrigation system can work at a much lower pressure than the other systems.

– Less risk of erosion.

– Availability of constant water at any time.

In Spain around a hundred different varieties of almonds are grown. But only a few are commercialized on a large scale.
To speak of Spain and almond is to make it something important. Spain is the second country in production of this fruit, after the United States, and exports account for more than 55 percent of the total.

The almond tree is characterized by being a very robust tree. Thanks to this, it tolerates the climatic variations of humid winters and very warm summers of the Mediterranean area quite calmly. It is next to the olive tree, the two most cultivated trees for industrial production in the area. The life of almonds in normal conditions is estimated between 60 and 80 years.

The Spanish regions that produce most almonds are Andalusia, Catalonia, Aragon, Valencia, Balearic Islands and Murcia. In the rest, except for small areas of Extremadura, Castilla, its production could be considered testimonial. The varieties that are sold the most are the Largueta, Marcona (considered the highest quality) and Planet. These three are considered botanically pure and native to Spain.

Most of the almonds are cultivated in dry land, although their response to irrigation is very good, doubling production. With the implementation of drip irrigation and fertirrigation we achieved an advance of the entry into production of 2 years and more regular and larger crops. The season of almond harvest changes depending on the variety. The earliest are collected at the end of August and the last with the arrival of cold forts. The harvest must be done when the green bark of the almond is opened, and it must be done before the fruit falls to the ground.

The commercial output of the almond is growing in the food industry. Increasingly, it is an indispensable ingredient in new products, thanks to its properties. The almond is rich in calcium, helps reduce cholesterol, is used to make milk for celiacs, and contains a significant amount of vitamin E. From a few years ago, almonds are also used by cosmetic companies to make ointments and creams repairing.

Each farm is different and profitability is often conditioned by external factors such as prices of crops, inputs or weather. However, there are 6 common characteristics of the most profitable farms:

1. Take the reins: just having an accountant or advisor for the field notebook is not enough. The most profitable farmers know their exploitation well and do not leave it completely in the hands of another.

2. They have a plan: these farmers have a future plan to improve agronomically (productivity) and economically (margins and production costs).

3. They know their numbers: the best farms invest time and money in tools to control their exploitation. They focus on the crops and activities that make them earn more.

4. They are proactive: they move forward and look for ways to improve slow and manual processes.

5. They use data to make decisions: they keep track of the activities carried out, yields obtained, costs … They know that to be increasingly profitable, you have to control production costs to the cent.

6. Passion: they have a motivated and passionate team. Making a good product and leaving customers happy is basic to success. The most profitable farmers, in addition to being good in the field, are thanks to knowing their numbers very well and making decisions that make them earn more money.

Access to the purchase or lease of land is the main barrier for young farmers in the European Union. In addition to the difficulty of accessing more land, among the concerns of young farmers in Spain are also access to grants, subsidies and credits for their agricultural activity.

During the last years and especially during the real estate crisis there has been a concentration of land. The high price of land, compared to its profitability, does not compensate for making such a large investment to the young farmer.

Another factor that influences the difficulty of accessing the land, is that when older farmers retire, they continue with agricultural activity instead of selling or giving up land. We hope that this situation will change and that those young farmers who want to expand or start their farms will find the best way to do so to continue with their activity and rejuvenate the countryside.