Do you know the types of leguminous plantations and their water needs?
The legumes or fabaceae is a group of plants consisting of a variety of trees, shrubs, vines and even herbs, giving as fruit the legumes. The legume pods are harvested with the intention of obtaining the seeds inside, being an important source of proteins, carbohydrates, nutrients and fibers that are usually consumed worldwide.
In the cultivation of legumes there are around 19,000 species, ranking as the third group of plants with greater variety. Among them, the most common are: alfalfa, almorta, peas, beans, chickpeas, beans, lentils, lupine, peanuts, soy, carob, mung…
Now, how much water to grow legumes is needed?
The water needs of these types of plants are sometimes very heterogeneous between one crop and another. In addition, it also influences the type of soil, climate and humidity of the area.
Let’s talk about the type of irrigation in the most common crops mentioned above:
- Alfalfa: In spring times this plant requires few amounts of water. However, in periods of high evaporation your irrigation should be more continuous.
- Almorta: Your soil should always remain moist, so watering must be frequent.
- Peas: They are from climates with moderate cold. This plant adapts to almost all types of soils and requires copious irrigation.
- Beans: You need abundant exposure to the sun and a moist soil, so that watering should be frequent as long as soil flooding is avoided.
- Chickpeas: It is a drought resistant plant and its need for water is scarce.
- Beans: As in the case of chickpeas, it requires a small amount of water. Too wet soil impairs its good growth.
- Lentils: You need a moist soil, so periodic watering is recommended.
- Lupine: This is a typical rainfed crop, although it requires timely irrigation after flowering.
- Peanuts: This plant flees from excess moisture, however, its irrigation must be abundantly to stimulate its growth.
- Soy: It needs a moist soil but, in turn, flees from the waterlogging. You could say that this plant resists drought well, therefore, irrigation should be rather scarce.
- Algarrobo: It is a crop very adaptable to drought conditions, which does not require large amounts of water for its development.
- Mungo: Own dry areas with low water retention soils, needing little irrigation.
Another important annotation for this type of crops:
– Cereals and legumes –
Both in cultivation and in its consumption, the combination of these two foods results in a positive result in its balance. These are two simultaneous crops that complement each other in terms of the use of available resources (water, light and nutrients) and cause a production of around 30% higher than the production that if it were a pure crop (100% legumes or 100% cereals). As for its consumption, legumes have a deficiency in methionine, however, they have lysine left over. The opposite occurs with cereals, which are deficient in lysine and rich in methionine. Therefore, the combination of cereals and legumes is perfect, managing to establish a protein of high biological value. A practical application of this combination is the case of eating a plate of lentils with rice.
What qualities of leguminous crops occur most to you?