Nowadays, in light of modern studies, the negative repercussions on the quality of wines due to brief periods of water stress have been evidenced, which is why the irrigation strategy tends to be established according to the quality of the product. final that you want to achieve. Drip irrigation in this crop has been shown to give the best results.
The selection of the type of dropper, the precipitation, the separation between drippers and the filtration needs, must be carefully evaluated during the design of the installation. The separation of the drippers according to the type of soil is a very important factor. In sandy soils 50 cm distance between drippers is recommended, while in clay soils the distances can be up to 1 meter.
Advantages of drip irrigation in the vineyard:
– High application efficiency. No water is lost through run-off or evaporation.
– Minimum number of irrigation sectors. Compared with other irrigation systems such as sprinklers or blanket irrigation, with the same flow rate we can irrigate a larger surface at the same time.
– Minimum infiltration problems. When dripping, there is no runoff that is lost by rapid infiltration.
– Lost by minimal evaporation.
– The wind does not affect the distribution. The wind affects considerably in sprinkler systems.
– Reduction of diseases due to a reduction in the aerial part of the plant and in the environment. Flooding and sprinkling are systems that produce favorable conditions for the development of diseases caused by fungi.
– No interference with the rest of the works in the vineyard. The installation of irrigation does not usually bother for the rest of the tasks we carry out in the vineyard, such as the grape harvester. The machinery can be used during the irrigation.
– Facility for the application of fertilizers. The facility is used to distribute the nutrients and apply them in the appropriate doses and moments, already dissolved in water, so they are more effective and localized, so we also save on fertilizers.
– Low maintenance. Installation costs more economical than other systems.
– The topography of the plot is not conditioning and there is the possibility of using self-compensating drippers in irregular geographies.
– Reduction of weeds, because the surface of wet soil is smaller.
– Lower pumping costs, because the drip irrigation system can work at a much lower pressure than the other systems.
– Less risk of erosion.
– Availability of constant water at any time.